move all three components of the attitude (affective, cognitive, and
behavioral) the same amount in the same direction using rapid shifts
in instructional tactics, from one component to another.
Offer a safe environrnent in which to try on the new attitude.
the attitude: Present a situation which calls for its use (behavior).
-Can be direct or indirect activation.
-The action should be slightly inconsistent with the learner's existing
attitude and in the direction of the target attitude (adjust if necessary).
This creates dissonance.
the dissonant component(s) by asking:
-How did that situation make you feel? (affective)
-What were you thinking? (cognitive)
-Why did you do what you did? (behavioral)
whichever component is most dissonant.
-If affective, use operant conditioning techniques.
-If cognitive, use persuasion.
-If behavioral, use demonstrations and practice for the action.
the attitude at one point on the continuum before proceeding.
-Include explicit transfer events and an organizational development
A. Audience is
willing or open to change their existing attitudes (p.581)
B. Different subject matter has different emphasis (Variable Proportion
C. Different learners have different emphasis (Learning Styles p.571)
D. Simultaneously move all three components of attitude the same amount
in the same direction (p. 564)
E. Change should occur incrementally, not all at once (p.585)
F. People use attitudes to meet their needs (p.573)
G. Attitudes function very quickly, and often quite subconsciously (p.569)
H. All learning contains all three attitudinal components, but not in
equal proportion. (p.571)
I. Learners will not risk damaging existing, proven attitudes (p.581)
J. They must believe the new attitude is possible and achievable (p.581)
K. Dissonance should be minimized and kept short in duration. (p.581)
L. To sustain an attitude change, ongoing support is needed. (p.590)
This model is
a highly ethical, humane, approach. It recognizes the interdependence
of the three components of an attitude. It is personalized to address
the most dissonant component first and recognizes that every attitude
is a tool which its owner uses to resolve a need
The theory overview presented here is all but directly quoted from Dr. Reigeluth's
summary. Only minor edits have been made by me for my own clarity. (see bottom
of page for full citation)
Kamradt, T. F., & Kamradt, E. J. (1999). Structured Design for Attitudinal
Instruction. Ch. 23 in Instructional-Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm
of Instructional Theory, vol. II. C.M. Reigeluth (ed.) Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence